Lesson Four (Leciono Kvar): Numbers, Time, and Dates

The numbers of Esperanto are nulo (0), unu (1), du (2), tri (3), kvar (4), kvin (5), ses (6), sep (7), ok (8), naux (9), dek (10), cent (100), mil (1000). Numbers simply are added from highest order of magnitude first to the lowest in compound (e.g., dek ses = 16, kvardek kvin = 45, kvarcent kvardek du = 442 trimil sescent naux = 3609, and so forth).

Higher order numbers may cause some confusion among North American English speakers, Australians, and New Zealanders in particular. Whilst a million is expressed as unu miliono, Esperanto uses long-scale billions, meaning that a thousand millions, 10^9 is unu miliardo. This equates with some British English (milliard), and most continental European languages (e.g., Spanish (millardo), French (milliard), German (Milliarde), Danish (milliard), and Russian (миллиард). Thus, a billion (unu biliono) in Esperanto is one million millions.

An alternative, for the scientifically-minded, might be to use eksponenta (exponention).

Days of the week are as follows:

Lundo, Mardo, Merkredo, Jxauxdo, Vendredo, Sabato, Dimancxo

Relative days are; hodiaux (today), hieraux (yesterday), morgaux (tomorrow). On a weekly scale; cxi tiun semajnon (this week), pasintan semajnon (last week), and venontan semajnon (next week).

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday

Months of the year are as follows:

Januaro, Februaro, Marto, Aprilo, Majo, Junio, Julio, Auxgusto, Septembro, Oktobro, Novembro, Decembro

January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, Novembr, December

Esperanto uses AM/PM time, and twenty-four hour time. For AM and PM simply use the Esperanto words for "morning" and "afternoon", i.e., mateno and "posttagmezo"; noon is tagmezo (day-middle) and midnight is noktomezo (night-middle). Thus one can refer to Je la unua horo matene ("at the first hour in the morning"), Je la unua horo posttagmezo ("at the first hour in the afternoon", or dektri horo (thirteen hour).

Time can also be related to nun (now), poste (later), and antauxe (before).

Duration is counted with minuto (minute), horo (hour), tago (day), semajno (week), monato (month), yaro (year).