Lesson Ten (Leciono Dek): Participles

A participle is an adjective which is formed from verb. Colours, for example, are adjectives which are not participles (e.g., La rugxa papero, "The red paper"), but descriptive terms that have come from an action are (e.g., La sxirita papero, "The torn paper"). In English, participles are described as being "present active" (e.g., La brulanta konstruajxo, "The burning building") or "past passive" (e.g., "La bruligita konstruajxo", "The burned building"). The affixes -anta and -ita are evident to verbed adjective "brul-".

However, Esperanto doesn't have two participles, it has eight, representing past, present, future, and conditional states to active and passive relating to the subject's relationship to the verb.

		Present 		Past 			Future 				Conditional
Active 		-anta (verb'ing) 	-inta (was-verb'ing) 	-onta (will-be-verb'ing) 	-unta (would-be-verb'ing)
Passive 	-ata (being-verb'ed) 	-ita (verb'ed) 		-ota (will-be-being-verb'ed) 	-uta (would-be-verb'ed)


La brulanta konstruajxo, "The burning building" (active, present)
La brulinta konstruajxo, "The was-burning building" (active, past)
La brulonta konstruajxo, "The will-be-burning building" (active, future)
La brulunta konstruajxo, "The would-be-burning building" (active, conditional)
La brulata konstruajxo, "The being-burned building" (passive, present)
La brulita konstruajxo, "The was-burned building" (passive. past)
La brulota konstruajxo, "The will-be-burned building" (passive, future)
La bruluta konstruajxo, "The would-be-burned building" (passive, conditional)